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Archive for the ‘Milton Hershey’ Category

HersheyArchives@30-11 “The Gift”

On November 13, 1918, Milton Hershey transferred his ownership of Hershey Chocolate Company to the Hershey Industrial School.

On November 13, 1918, Milton Hershey transferred his ownership of Hershey Chocolate Company to the Hershey Industrial School.

 

On November 15, 1909, Milton and Catherine Hershey signed a deed of trust establishing Hershey Industrial School (now Milton Hershey School).  Approximately 486 acres of land were transferred to the School together with all assets contained on the property.  All income, revenue, and rents derived from the property were to be used to support and maintain the School.

 

The previous day, November 14, 1909, Milton Hershey had signed a last will and testament directing the settlement of his estate.  The will provided for his wife Catherine, various friends and relatives, and also the School.   Under the terms of the will, the School would have acquired 3,000 shares of Hershey Chocolate Company stock and derived income from that investment.

 

Companies issue stock to raise money by selling a small part of the company to an investor, who is then referred to as a shareholder.  Hershey Chocolate Company and a few other Hershey area businesses acquired or established by Milton Hershey, such as Hershey Transit Company, were all privately held companies wherein a small number of private shareholders could trade or exchange stock privately. Other Hershey businesses, such as the Hershey Laundry, Hershey Park, and Hershey Store Company were funded by personal investments made by Milton Hershey.

 

Although Milton was the primary owner of the Hershey Chocolate Company and the other businesses created to manage the town, these businesses operated as separate entities. That all changed in 1918. On January 5, 1918, but retroactively effective as of January 1, 1918, Milton Hershey assigned his ownership in all of the disparate businesses to Hershey Chocolate Company.  Real estate, totaling approximately 7,695 acres, was also transferred to the chocolate company at the same time.

 

A list of the companies included in the transfer of Milton Hershey's assets to Hershey Chocolate Company.

A list of the companies included in the transfer of Milton Hershey’s assets to Hershey Chocolate Company.

 

With his investments and property consolidated under one organization, a company in which he was the primary shareholder, how Milton Hershey chose to divest his shares could impact not only the Hershey Chocolate Company, but the entire community.

 

Following the death of his beloved wife, Kitty, Milton decided to “execute” his will during his lifetime.  As it was Milton and Kitty’s desire that Hershey Industrial School operate in perpetuity, on November 13, 1918, Milton Hershey “executed” his will and quietly gifted the School his stock in Hershey Chocolate Company.  “I have no heirs—that is, no children.  So I decided to make the orphan boys of the United States my heirs.”  Hershey Industrial School became the majority shareholder in all the enterprises established by Milton Hershey and the majority landowner in Derry Township.

 

Milton Hershey with Hershey Industrial School students, seated on the steps of The Homestead.  1923

Milton Hershey with Hershey Industrial School students, seated on the steps of The Homestead. 1923

 

#HersheyArchives@30

HersheyArchives@30-10 “I Never Expected to Marry”

Catherine Hershey was interred at The West Laurel Cemetery Receiving Vault between 1915 and 1919

Catherine Hershey was interred at The West Laurel Cemetery Receiving Vault between 1915 and 1919

 

Catherine Sweeney Hershey died on March 25, 1915. Kitty, as she was affectionately known, and Milton Hershey shared a brief 18 years together before her death. A bachelor at the age of 40, Milton met the 26 year-old Kitty while on a sales call in Jamestown, New York. Something about Kitty must have instantly charmed him. They were married a year later on May 25, 1898.

 

Milton Hershey was a private individual who preferred to communicate via telegram and telephone. Receiving a telegram rather than a hand-written letter, frustrated Kitty, “You never saw anyone who disliked to write letters as he did.” By word-of-mouth accounts, Milton and Kitty had a happy marriage and the couple doted on one another; yet in the absence of passionate love letters, what evidence exists to document their adoration?

 

Kitty was known to have a lively spirit and a warm and outgoing personality. With her, Milton had a refuge from the demands of work and the opportunity to be lighthearted and playful. Kitty enjoyed traveling and especially enjoyed meeting new people. Traveling the world together they could both let down the guard they maintained while in Hershey. Those who worked beside a serious and determined Milton Hershey in the caramel factory or the experimental plant might not recognize the man posing in a bathing suit cut-out.

 

Milton and Catherine Hershey pose with friend Adeline Jackson (on left) at Coney Island. ca1910

Milton and Catherine Hershey pose with friend Adeline Jackson (on left) at Coney Island. ca1910

 

Milton provided for Kitty’s every need and wish. Not only did he buy her furs and Tiffany jewelry, but he brought her flowers every day. Raised by a strict Mennonite, Milton thought flowers were frivolous, but to Kitty they were a sign of beauty and happiness. She supervised the landscaping around High Point that included extensive gardens that were open to the public. After her death, Milton directed the construction of Hershey Gardens, remarking to horticulturist Harry Erdman, “The more beautiful you can make the place look, the better life the people will have.”

 

Catherine Hershey. ca1914

Catherine Hershey. ca1914

 

At Kitty’s funeral, Milton confided to her sister Agnes Smith, “I never expected to marry.” Their marriage, although tragically brief, had a tremendous and everlasting influence on Milton. In 1909, unable to have children of their own, Milton and Kitty had established the Hershey Industrial School (now Milton Hershey School). Milton would always say that the school was, “Kitty’s idea.” Three years after her death, Milton gifted the school’s trust fund with the bulk of his fortune, ensuring that her idea would continue on in perpetuity.

 

He also continued to bring her flowers.

 

Milton Hershey arranged for flowers to be placed at his wife's crypt twice a week until she was moved to the newly established Hershey Cemetery.

Milton Hershey arranged for flowers to be placed at his wife’s crypt twice a week until she was moved to the newly established Hershey Cemetery.

 

#HersheyArchives@30

HersheyArchives@30-8 DESTINATION: Hershey, PA

Throughout its history, Hershey has been a well-known destination for entertainment.

 

Each summer,crowds of people traveled to Hershey to enjoy its many amenities. 1915

Each summer,crowds of people traveled to Hershey to enjoy its many amenities. 1915

 

After the Hershey Chocolate Factory opened in 1905, the town soon emerged as a popular regional destination. Visitors came to explore the model town and enjoy Hershey Park and its growing number of amenities.

 

In 1914, Hershey’s weekly newspaper, The Hershey Press, announced that a convention hall was going to be erected in Hershey Park. In developing plans for the hall, Milton Hershey was inspired by a well-known assembly hall in Ocean Grove, New Jersey, and sent his builder, James K. Putt, to visit the structure to learn more about it and what might be incorporated in the Hershey building.

 

Convention Hall, longitudinal section.  Architect: C. Emlen Urban. 1/8/1915

Convention Hall, longitudinal section. Architect: C. Emlen Urban. 1/8/1915

 

The new facility was built specifically to attract large events and big crowds to Hershey.  Its first function was the Triennial Convention of the Brethren Church.  Milton Hershey was very interested in hosting this major event and promised the meeting planners that the Convention Hall would be completed in time for their conference scheduled for June 1915.  Construction began in March 1915.

 

Brethren gather to meet in Hershey's Convention Hall. 6/1915

Brethren gather to meet in Hershey’s Convention Hall. 6/1915

Hershey Convention Hall ready for its first meeting.  Note that the ceiling has not yet been plastered.  6/1915

Hershey Convention Hall ready for its first meeting. Note that the ceiling has not yet been plastered. 6/1915

 

The building was dedicated on Memorial Day weekend, May 30, 1915.  Hershey Park opened for the season the following day, Memorial Day (Monday, May 31).  The dedication program included a 40 piece band, the combined church choirs of Hershey, several vocal and instrumental soloists, as well as several speakers.

 

The Convention Hall was not simply a large assembly hall.  Milton Hershey’s plans for the building incorporated many of his goals and vision for his community.  The Hershey Press carried this announcement about the building’s dedication in its June 3, 1915 issue:

 

Dedication

Hershey Convention Hall is dedicated to the service of the people.  May they meet often within its walls and by their proceedings and discussions find wisdom.  May they listen to words that will guide them in the paths of peace and righteousness.  May they hear music that will uplift them.  May they gather the products of their fields and factories and stimulate one another to higher achievements in agriculture, manufacture, commerce and the arts.  May they learn more of the great principles of consolidation and co-operation.  May they be imbued with the spirit of brotherhood, of courtesy and of helpfulness.  May the services on Memorial Day exalting the patriotism of our heroes be a true dedication of this Hall to the welfare of a free people, the cause of liberty, the love of the Flag and the glory of God.

 

The Convention Hall hosted a variety of musical and theatrical performers. ca1915-1920

The Convention Hall hosted a variety of musical and theatrical performers. ca1915-1920

 

True to Milton Hershey’s vision, the 1915 addition of the Convention Hall transformed Hershey, Pennsylvania into a destination capable of hosting large conventions and national performers. The Convention Hall quickly became a popular destination for both nationally celebrated performers and as a meeting venue for large organizations. The building would host a variety of events over its years of service including concerts by New York Metropolitan Opera singers, the Paul Whiteman Orchestra, the Sistine Chapel Choir during its first American tour, and nationally recognized marching bands.

 

#HersheyArchives@30

Hershey Archives@30-7 To Build a Town – Step One: houses

Plan 'A' Trinidad Avenue, ca1903

Plan ‘A’ Trinidad Avenue, ca1903

 

Visitors to Hershey today are often impressed by the community’s well-kept homes with tidy green lawns and sidewalks.  Building attractive and comfortable homes for his workers was part of Milton Hershey’s vision for his model industrial town.

 

Cocoa Avenue, ca1920

Cocoa Avenue, ca1920

 

26 E. Areba Avenue, 1912

26 E. Areba Avenue, 1912

 

Most of Hershey’s residential area is located on the south side of Chocolate Avenue.  The layout for these streets and lots can be seen on this 1903 map.

 

However, when Milton Hershey first started building his model town, the first homes were not built there.

 

Aerial view of Derry Church, looking north.  Note location of Derry Presbyterian Church in right hand corner. ca1924

Aerial view of Derry Church, looking north. Note location of Derry Presbyterian Church in right hand corner. ca1924

 

When Milton Hershey broke ground for his chocolate factory in March 1903, he was building in the midst of farm fields and dairy pasture. He planned to build a town from scratch. Fortunately, the area that Milton Hershey selected to build his chocolate factory and model town was next to the small community of Derry Church.  Though small, Derry Church included a tavern, post office, railroad station, a Presbyterian Church, a grain mill, a few small businesses and a number of houses, all located along Derry Road.

 

Haefner House tavern, Derry Church, PA. ca1910

Haefner House tavern, Derry Church, PA. ca1910

 

Some of Hershey’s first construction workers found lodging in Derry Church and the tavern was a popular destination after work.

 

Map of Milton Hershey's land acquisitions, ca1903. Detail showing Trinidad Avenue

Map of Milton Hershey’s land acquisitions, ca1903. Detail showing Trinidad Avenue

 

Since Hershey, the town, was more of an idea than a reality in 1903, it probably made sense to build new housing for his workers adjacent to the existing town of Derry Church.

 

Topographical map of future Trinidad Avenue housing construction, 7/1903

Topographical map of future Trinidad Avenue housing construction, 7/1903

 

In July 1903, a piece of land located north of the future chocolate factory and adjacent to Derry Church was surveyed. Building lots for new worker homes were located on the rolling terrain. Soon ground was broken for 25 new homes.  Like future residential streets that would be constructed on the south side of Chocolate Avenue, this new residential street was named Trinidad Avenue, in  honor of one of the cacao growing regions in the world.

 

Trinidad Avenue, ca1906

Trinidad Avenue, ca1906

 

These houses were completed by the end of 1904, in time for the start-up of the chocolate factory. The Trinidad houses were built using two different floor plans and featured small front yards and porches.  The repetitive designs of the houses displeased Milton Hershey.  When the next houses were constructed, he made sure that the homes featured more architectural variety.

 

Though Milton Hershey owned other land on the north side of the railroad tracks, these were the only houses that would be built in that location. In 1905, house construction shifted to the south side of Chocolate Avenue as workers began building homes on Caracas, Granada, Cocoa and Chocolate Avenues.

HersheyArchives@30-6 Planning a town

By the late 1890s, Milton Hershey was convinced that his future lay in producing chocolate rather than caramels. In 1900, the same year Hershey introduced Hershey’s Milk Chocolate, he sold his Lancaster Caramel Company to competitors for $1 million to devote all his energies to his quickly expanding chocolate business.

 

Derry Township farm land, ca1900

Derry Township farm land, ca1900

 

By 1902 it was obvious that a new, larger factory was needed to produce milk chocolate.  After inspecting possible sites for his new chocolate factory in New York, New Jersey and Maryland, Hershey was soon convinced that the central Pennsylvania countryside would provide everything he needed for a factory: a plentiful water supply, access to rail lines, fresh milk and industrious workers.

 

Since Hershey planned to build his factory in the middle of farmland, not in a town, it was clear from the start that he would have to provide a place for at least some of his workers, as well as his managerial staff, to live.

 

In 1902, working with a real estate broker, Milton Hershey began acquiring land in Derry Township.

 

 

Map of Milton Hershey's land purchases in Derry Township, ca1903-1904

Map of Milton Hershey’s land purchases in Derry Township, ca1903-1904

 

 

By the time Hershey broke ground for his new chocolate factory in 1903, he had acquired over 1200 acres of land in Derry Township and the surrounding area. Clearly, Milton Hershey had bigger plans than simply building a chocolate factory.

 

The Archives is fortunate to hold this hand-drawn map in its collections.  Individual land purchases are identified by a colored outline. It is apparent that Hershey made several different land acquisitions that were pieced together to form a significant land mass.

 

Superimposed on the map’s outline of land purchases is a pen and ink drawing that reveals the outlines of the future town of Hershey, Pennsylvania.

 

Detail of map of Milton Hershey's land purchases and proposed layout of new community. ca1903

Detail of map of Milton Hershey’s land purchases and proposed layout of new community. ca1903

 

 

A closer look reveals the location of the new chocolate factory, residential streets, a car barn for the new trolley system and trolley tracks, a new schoolhouse and the location for a new building on the north side of the Berks & Dauphin Turnpike. Proposed street names have been recorded in pencil:  Chocolate Avenue for the Turnpike, Cocoa Avenue for a main street coming from the south.  Streets for the residential area will carry names of cocoa growing regions: Ceylon, Caracas, Granada, Trinidad.

 

Milton Hershey’s vision and desire to build a model industrial new town, as revealed with this map, are confirmed with articles that were published locally and in business trade journals.

 

On February 19, 1903, the Harrisburg Independent published an article describing Milton Hershey’s plans:

 

“A New Town Near Derry Church to Cost a Million”

“To Be Built By M.S. Hershey the Chocolate Man”

“Is Leaving His Lancaster Plant and Will Build Up

a Modern Laboring Community

for Benefit of 600 Employees”

 

                A new town which will have a population of 1500 will be built midway between Derry Church and Swatara, this county, along the line of the Philadelphia and Reading railway, by M.S. Hershey, the Lancaster chocolate manufacturer, who has large manufacturing interests in various parts of the State.

                He has already begun work there on the erection of a new factory, which will employ 600 men, to supersede the plant at Lancaster, and his purpose in building the new town is to form a modern dwelling community for his employees and their families.  Mr. Hershey has planned an expenditure of $1,000,000 to further his enterprise.

                                                                . . .

               The town will be laid out along plans of modern manufacturing communities which are now springing up, all over this country, patterned after those in England.  It will contain grass plots for pleasure parks in which there will be fountains and stone walks.  The street will be made of crushed stone taken from the quarries and stone crushing machinery has already been installed. 

 

 

The factory would be completed in 1905 and the town would develop along the lines revealed in the map.

 

HersheyArchives@30-5 Maroon and Silver

The  familiar Hershey’s Milk Chocolate bar wrapper.

 

The maroon and silver package, sometimes described as brown and silver, is identifiable at a glance. You can imagine the many versions and proofs Milton Hershey must have considered before settling on the now iconic wrapper design; the “face” of his new brand and his new product. Yet the process of designing the wrapper was not so straightforward. Within the Archives’ collections, documentation reveals a particular set of circumstances that transpired as to why maroon and silver came to symbolize the Hershey brand.

 

Hershey's Milk Chocolate bar wrapper. 1900

Hershey’s Milk Chocolate bar wrapper. 1900

 

Milton Hershey, after years of experimentation, began marketing Hershey’s Milk Chocolate in 1900. The bar retailed for $0.05 and was wrapped in a white wrapper with gold lettering.

 

The wrapper featured Hershey’s two trademarks, a cow’s head enclosed in a wreath of wheat and the cocoa bean baby.  The gold lettering was similar to that used on Hershey’s earlier semi-sweet or dark chocolate products.  Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bars were immediately successful and distributed nationally, but there was one problem.  The white wrapper had a tendency to become soiled and stained during the summer months as heat influenced the product.

 

Hershey's Milk Chocolate bar wrapper, gold and maroon. Hershey marketed bars in a variety of sizes, including a 8 ounce bar, retailing for 40 cents. 1902

Hershey’s Milk Chocolate bar wrapper, gold and maroon. Hershey marketed bars in a variety of sizes, including a 8 ounce bar, retailing for 40 cents. 1902

 

In 1902, Hershey instructed that a brown wrapper, printed with the same trademarks and lettering, should replace the problematic white wrapper.  According to Milton Hershey, “The brown color of paper was selected by me for its wearing qualities, durability, cleanliness, and not being liable to soil.”[i]

 

Hershey’s Milk Chocolate bar wrapper, designed by Ketterlinus Lithographic Manufacturing Company. 1903

 

 

In 1903, Hershey visited Ketterlinus Lithographic Manufacturing Company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and had an additional wrapper designed.

 

Hershey was not the only manufacturer of milk chocolate in the United States.  He was however, the only manufacturer to use fresh milk; other manufacturers used milk powder or condensed milk.  In 1905, the Societe Generale Suisse De Chocolats, manufacturers of Peter’s Chocolate, took notice of Hershey’s activities.

 

Peter's Milk Chocolate bar wrapper. ca1903-1905

Peter’s Milk Chocolate bar wrapper. ca1903-1905

 

 

Peter’s argued that Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar wrapper was too similar to Peter’s Chocolate and caused consumer confusion and brought suit against Hershey.  A judge agreed with Peter’s and ordered Hershey to discontinue use of the wrapper.

 

Hershey complied with the judge’s order and to differentiate his wrapper from that of Peter’s began using silver lettering in place of the gold.

 

Hershey's Milk Chocolate bar wrapper. 1906-1911

Hershey’s Milk Chocolate bar wrapper. 1906-1911

 

Peter’s continued to protest Hershey’s use of the maroon, or brown, color citing that other manufacturers began to utilize the color as well causing market saturation.[ii]  Milton Hershey was satisfied with the new wrapper design of maroon and silver and was not swayed by Peter’s arguments.

 

In one way, the familiar maroon and silver wrapper is the product of legal action.  Perhaps though, Milton Hershey saw the change as an unexpected improvement. Had he not been satisfied with the new design he would have returned to the Ketterlinus offices.  The experience had an additional positive impact on Milton Hershey.  It introduced him to the value of intellectual property and trademarks in the development and protection of a brand.  Hershey would recall this experience and use the lessons he learned in the future to protect his next product: Hershey’s Kisses Chocolates.

 

[i] Milton Hershey affidavit, 1905.  Accession 200945 Box 1 Folder 42.

[ii] Correspondence, Frederick Duncan to John Snyder, 01/21/1908.  Accession 200945 Box 1 Folder 41.

 

HersheyArchives@30-3 “I am going to make chocolate.”

 

Milton Hershey ordered four pieces of equipment from the J.M. Lehmann Company's New York office. January 11, 1894

Milton Hershey ordered four pieces of equipment from the J.M. Lehmann Company’s New York office. January 11, 1894

 

Milton Hershey made his fortune with caramels but he made history with chocolate. In 1893, while attending the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Hershey told Frank Snavely, “Caramels are a fad but chocolate is permanent. I am going to make chocolate.”

 

Milton Hershey was a reader of newspapers and an astute businessman. The increasing demand for chocolate in the United States would not have escaped his notice. In 1883, the United States imported 9,000,000 pounds of cocoa beans; in 1893, 24,000,000 pounds.

 

After examining the J. M. Lehmann exhibit of chocolate making machinery at Chicago’s 1893 Columbian Exposition, Hershey made up his mind to invest in chocolate. After the exposition closed, two pieces of Lehmann machinery from the exhibit were shipped to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. This document, an order for additional chocolate making machinery, details Hershey’s subsequent purchases and signifies the beginning of Hershey manufacturing chocolate in 1894.

 

The principal machines required to manufacture chocolate are roasters, hullers, mills to crush the beans, melangeurs (chocolate grinding machine) to mix the chocolate paste and sugar, cocoa butter presses to separate cocoa butter from cocoa solids, and steel rollers to refine the chocolate. Having acquired the melangeur and steel roller from the exhibit at the exposition, this purchase of equipment fulfilled Hershey’s needs. By 1895, the Hershey Chocolate Company was producing cocoa and semi-sweet or dark chocolate for retail sale.

 

Catalog; page 4. Image of a J.M. Lehmann Roasting Machine; Roaster; Catalog; J.M. Lehmann Dresden-Loebtau, 1902 edition

Catalog; page 4. Image of a J.M. Lehmann Roasting Machine; Roaster; Catalog; J.M. Lehmann Dresden-Loebtau, 1902 edition

 

When Hershey decided to make chocolate, he committed to the idea fully. Comparing the invoice found at the top of this story to a slightly newer (1902) J. M. Lehmann catalog indicates Hershey purchased machinery capable of producing large quantities of chocolate. The purchased roaster had a capacity of 9oo pounds. The local newspaper reported that Hershey’s melangeur was the second-largest in the United States, second only to one used by Walter Baker & Company. From the start, Hershey intended to transform and dominate the chocolate market in the United States.

HersheyArchives@30 – 1 Where would we be without family?

This is part of a series celebrating the 30th anniversary of Hershey Community Archives by highlighting 30 items from the collection.

 

Letter: Milton Hershey to his Uncle Abraham Snavely, 1/13/1882

Letter: Milton Hershey to his Uncle Abraham Snavely, 1/13/1882

 

While Hershey’s Milk Chocolate is an iconic symbol of the United States, its creator, Milton Hershey, is less well-known.  And even if you know that Milton Hershey built a town and funded a school for disadvantaged children with the profits from that chocolate bar, you may not know that Milton Hershey came by his success the hard way:  he tried and failed and tried again until he achieved success.

 

It is very easy to overlook or dismiss the years of struggle when someone like Milton Hershey ultimately achieves such tremendous success.  Fortunately, the Archives holds evidence of his struggles and his early failures.  These artifacts help us to better understand Milton Hershey and the events that shaped him.

 

Milton Hershey's first business card.  ca.1876

Milton Hershey’s first business card. ca.1876

 

Milton Hershey opened his first confectionery shop in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1876. He was 18 years old. The business got off to a good start, sales buoyed by the crowds who flocked to Philadelphia to visit the Centennial Exposition.

 

Business grew and a few years later, needing more space, Milton Hershey moved his shop down the street to larger quarters at 925 & 927 Spring Garden Street and operated a wholesale business from 532 Linden Street (just around the corner). But by 1880 the business was beginning to falter.

 

The Archives holds several  letters from Milton Hershey to his Uncle Abraham Snavely that were written between December 1880 and January 1882.  Each letter is much like the same, pleas for loans of money or requests for patience because Milton Hershey has not repaid the previous loans.  The Archives does not hold any letters from Uncle Abraham.  We can imagine that as Milton Hershey continued to beg for more and more financial support, Abraham became exasperated and disillusioned with his nephew.  Milton’s last letters to his Uncle indicate that Abraham Snavely was dragging his feet (and wallet) about sending any more money.

 

The last letter in the Archives’ collection suggests just how desperate Milton Hershey had become.

 

Letter: Milton Hershey to his Uncle Christian Snavely, 1/13/1882

Letter: Milton Hershey to his Uncle Christian Snavely, 1/13/1882

 

[Transcript]

ESTABLISHED IN 1876

Office of

MILTON S. HERSHEY

MANUFACTURE OF

SPECIALTIES IN FINE CONFECTIONS

 Sole Manufacturer of the Celebrated H.H. Cough Drops

 1217 TO 1225 BEACH ST.,

 

                                                                                                              Philadelphia, Jan 13, 1882

Dear Uncle

You letter of the 12 inst

at hand , and I canot do anny longer than

Tuesday 17th or aunt Martha will have to come

up so do try to save her the trouble as she wishes

to stay a few weeks longer I Paid the note of

wisemans & Mcgill but it made me so short I can

[n]ot Pay my Bills. And Martha would of come up

then but she thought You would do this much for the

last time. So do Possitively send it by

Tuesday 17inst if I would of [if I] not had father

to Pay the 350.00 I would not of had to trouble

You or Martha and she was Perfectly willing

that I got Clear of him and I feel better my-

self,

Your Truly,

MSHershey

Aunt Martha wish to [k]now if you Recd that

Pacye of h?? Tr J.Ohoh at Lancaster

 

The letter’s reference to having to pay his father reveals another layer to Milton Hershey’s financial struggles. Henry Hershey had arrived to “help” his son in in late 1880. Full of ideas and vision, Henry designed a candy display cabinet (pictured on Milton Hershey’s stationery letterhead) that Henry was certain would benefit his son’s business.

 

Milton’s mother and his Aunt Mattie were not pleased with Henry Hershey’s involvement with the business. The women viewed him as a distraction and a disruption. They urged Milton to pay his father for the candy cabinet so that his father would leave Philadelphia. Yet Milton didn’t have enough money to invest in another venture.  While he agreed to pay his father, that payment was the final blow to Milton Hershey’s first candy business.

 

After struggling for six years to make his first business a success, Milton Hershey closed his shop in the spring of 1882. While the end of this business was not a happy conclusion, Milton Hershey learned many lessons about supply and demand, credit, cash flow and the importance of limiting your product line. These were all lessons that he would put to use more profitably in future business ventures.

 

#HersheyArchives@30

 

 

 

The Hershey Idea

Milton Hershey envisioned building a community in which all the parts were interwoven.  He built a model town for the workers of chocolate factory AND the workers in the businesses he established to provide services to make the town an attractive and functional place to live.

 

His desire to share his approach to business was communicated in recurring articles in the local weekly newspaper, The Hershey Press

 

Hershey's Progressive Weekly, July 10, 1913.  page 10

Hershey’s Progressive Weekly, July 10, 1913. page 10

 

For a short while, Milton Hershey even considered publishing a monthly magazine, to be titled, “The Hershey Idea.” Plans for the magazine were laid out in a full page ad that appeared in the Hershey Press.

 

The magazine promised to “attach the oppressions of dishonest Capitalism and the unjust assaults of Labor upon Capital. . .” It would include political and economic news in an “absolutely unbiased and judicial manner.”  It would also have a short story section.  The advertisement noted that the magazine’s first issue would be published in September 1913.

 

We don’t know why, but the magazine never materialized.

 

However, “The Hershey Idea” continued as an important philosophy of how Milton Hershey conducted business.

 

Team Work Sells the Hershey Idea.  Memo issued to all Hershey employees.  1938

Team Work Sells the Hershey Idea. Memo issued to all Hershey employees. 1938

 

The 1938 memo outlined Milton Hershey’s vision for his community and how he hoped all the different businesses would recognize that they were part of a larger whole.  What is fascinating about the memo today is that it continues to reflect how Milton Hershey’s businesses continue to try to work together for the benefit of consumers and visitors to the town today.

 

The text of the memo follows:

 

TEAM WORK
SELLS THE HERSHEY IDEA

     Visitors coming to Hershey should readily be sold on the HERSHEY IDEA as our facilities and attractions are not to be excelled.

      The public and our customers regard all our enterprises as one institution. This places a real responsibility on all enterprises alike because any lack of courtesy or efficiency in any one enterprise almost certainly reflects into every other enterprise in the customers mind and patronage. This applies impressively to customers and residents of Hershey.

     This element means greatly accumulated results for good or bad. Any customer lost by one enterprise for any reason of times produces a total loss of patronage for all other enterprises of the whole institution.

     We must depend almost entirely for creating the proper atmosphere by real efficient service and the co-operation of all enterprises.

Signed M.S. Hershey

 

A Neat Folder.
This can be made effective if you will sign and distribute to every clerk in the Hershey Department Store, down the line, including the Hershey National Bank.

Building Hershey: C.Emlen Urban

 

C_Emlen_Urban

C. Emlen Urban, 1863-1939. (Image courtesy of LancasterHistory.org)

 

This Sunday (October 5, 2014) The Hershey Story and the Hershey-Derry Township Historical Society are hosting a special walking tour of our downtown.  The tour will highlight some of the many buildings designed by noted architect, Cassius Emlem Urban, better known as Emlen to his friends. Mr. Urban was responsible for the design of some of Hershey’s most iconic buildings, including the Convention Hall, High Point and the Hershey Press Building.  It is remarkable to think that when you walk down Chocolate Avenue, much of what stands was designed by one architect.

 

Chocolate Avenue, 2007

Chocolate Avenue, 2007

 

So how did a Lancaster born and bred architect come to play such an important role in shaping the physical look of Hershey?

 

Cassius Emlen Urban (1863-1939) was born in Conestoga Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.  After graduating from Lancaster’s Boys High School, he apprenticed as a draftsman at a Scranton architectural firm before returning to Lancaster in 1886.  That was the same year Milton Hershey also returned to establish the Lancaster Caramel Company.

 

Watt & Shand Department Store, Lancaster, PA. ca1905. Designed by C.Emlen Urban

Watt & Shand Department Store, Lancaster, PA. ca1905. Designed by C.Emlen Urban

 

Like Milton Hershey, Urban’s career quickly took off as he received commissions to design what became many of Lancaster’s signature buildings: Southern Market on Queen Street (1886), Watt and Shand Department Store (1898), and St. James Lutheran Church parish House on Duke Street (1903).

 

While Urban and Hershey must have at least  been aware of each other due to their close ages and similar status as members of Lancaster’s most notable young business owners, they also met socially through the Hamilton Club, a private men’s club, established in 1889 by some of Lancaster’s most prominent business and political leaders.  Milton Hershey was invited to join in 1893, a sure sign of his growing prominence in the Lancaster business and social circles.  Through the Hamilton Club, Milton Hershey established and nurtured relationships that became invaluable when he began making plans for his new chocolate factory and the model community that would surround it.

 

C. Emlen Urban played a significant role shaping the look of the community.  Urban was responsible for the design of all the new town’s major buildings constructed between 1903 and 1926:

 

Hershey Chocolate Factory, postcard view. 1909

Hershey Chocolate Factory, postcard view. 1909

 

List of C. Emlen Urban designed buildings in Hershey:

1903    Original Hershey Chocolate Company Offices and Factory    (demolished 1931)

1905    Cocoa House (1 Chocolate Avenue) (demolished 1963)

1908    High Point

1910    McKinley Building 1910 expansion (demolished 1928)

1914    M.S. Hershey Consolidated Building

1914    Hershey Trust Company (1 W. Chocolate Avenue)

1915*  Community Building and Hershey Theatre (14 E. Chocolate Avenue)

1915    Convention Hall

1916    Hershey Press Building

1909-1916       Mansions along Chocolate Avenue

 

*Urban was also responsible for the design of the Community Building and Theatre, even though the structure was not constructed until 1932.  The designs and the intent to construct it was announced in the Hershey Press newspaper in 1915.  The United States’ entry into World War I delayed the start of construction.  A variety of financial and business related obstacles delayed the start of construction until 1928.